# History and impact of the Finesse simulation tool

The idea for Finesse was first raised in 1997, when I (Andreas) was visiting the Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching, to assist Gerhard Heinzel with his work on Dual Recycling at the 30 m prototype interferometer. We were using optical simulations which were rather slow and not very flexible. At the same time Gerhard Heinzel had developed a linear circuit simulation Liso that used a numerical algorithm to solve the set of linear equations representing an electronic circuit. The similarities of the two computational tasks and the outstanding performance of Liso lead to the idea to use the same methods for an optical simulation. Gerhard Heinzel kindly allowed me to copy his source code and even today many of the Liso routines are still used in their original form inside Finesse.

In the following years Finesse has been continually developed, first within the GEO 600 project and now at the University of Birmingham. Since 2011 Daniel Brown has been the main programmer and project lead for Finesse, being responsible for the open source releases of version 1.0 and 2.0 and making Finesse ready for the era of Advanced GW detectors.

At the same time Finesse has been widely used in several projects; most dominantly by the gravitational wave groups all over the world. This page provides below an incomplete list of documents citing the Finesse software, to document the wide and sustained impact the software has on this research field.

If you are using Finesse for your work or research,
we would like to know about it. We also appreciate if you acknowledge
Finesse in publications that make use of
Finesse results by citing our software via it's
DOI, see:

@misc{Finesse, author = {Brown, Daniel David and Freise, Andreas}, title = {Finesse}, month = may, year = 2014, note = {{You can download the binaries and source code at \url{http://www.gwoptics.org/finesse}.}}, doi = {10.5281/zenodo.821363}, url = {http://www.gwoptics.org/finesse} }

You can also cite our paper `A. Freise et al.: Frequency-domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes, Class. Quantum Grav., 21, S1067 (2004)' (open arxiv link). The Latex code is:

@Article{Finesse2004, Title = {Frequency-domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes}, Author = {A Freise and G Heinzel and H L\"{u}ck and R Schilling and B Willke and K Danzmann}, Journal = {Classical and Quantum Gravity}, Year = {2004}, Note = {Finesse is available at \url{http://www.gwoptics.org/finesse}.}, Number = {5}, Pages = {S1067-S1074}, Volume = {21}, Url = {http://stacks.iop.org/0264-9381/21/S1067}

Over the years the Finesse source code was shared with a several individual researchers from within and outside the gravitational wave community and in the 2012 Finesse finally was made available as an open source project with a dedicated platform for community interaction.

## Scientific reports, papers and theses that cite Finesse

- Length Sensing and Control for AdLIGO , Kentaro Somiya, Osamu Miyakawa, Peter Fritschel, and Rana Adhikali (2016)
- Design study and prototype experiment of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner , K Kazushiro Yano, Ayaka Kumeta and Kentaro Somiya (2016)
- Length sensing and control for Einstein Telescope Low Frequency , V. Adya et al. (2016)
- Analytical calculation of Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss modes on a bullseye photodiode, Charlotte Bond, Paul Fulda and Andreas Freise (2016)
- Alignment sensing and control for squeezed vacuum states of light , Emil Schreiber et al. (2015)
- Fast Simulation of Gaussian-Mode Scattering for Precision Interferometry , Daniel Brown, Rory Smith and Andreas Freise (2015)
- Local-Oscillator Noise Coupling in Balanced Homodyne Readout for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors , Sebastian Steinlechner et al. (2015)
- Upper limit to the transverse to longitudinal motion coupling of a waveguide mirror, S Leavey, B W Barr, A S Bell, N Gordon, C Gräf, S Hild, S H Huttner, E-B Kley, S Kroker, J Macarthur, Classical and Quantum Gravity Volume 32 Number 17 (2015)
- Active wavefront control in and beyond Advanced LIGO, A. F. Brooks, R. X. Adhikari, S. Ballmer, L. Barsotti, P. Fulda, A. Perreca, LIGO technical note, LIGO-T1500188 (2015)
- In-situ characterization of the thermal state of resonant optical interferometers via tracking of their higher-order mode resonances, Chris L. Mueller, Paul Fulda, Rana X. Adhikari, Koji Arai, Aidan F. Brooks, Rijuparna Chakraborty, Valery V. Frolov, Peter Fritschel, Eleanor J. King, David B. Tanner, Hiroaki Yamamoto, Guido Mueller, Classical and Quantum Gravity Volume 32 Number 13 (2015)
- Design study of the KAGRA output mode cleaner, Ayaka Kumeta, Charlotte Bond, Kentaro Somiya, Optical Review, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 149-152 (2015)
- Advanced Virgo: a second generation interferometric gravitational wave detector, F. Acernese et al., Class. Quantum Grav. 32 024001 (2015)
- How to stay in shape: overcoming beam and mirror distortions in advanced gravitational wave interferometers Charlotte Zoë Bond, Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham (2014)
- Thermal correction of astigmatism in the gravitational wave observatory GEO 600 H. Wittel et al., Class. Quantum Grav. 31 065008 (2014)
- Sub nrad beam pointing monitoring and stabilization system for controlling input beam jitter in GW interferometers B. Canuel et al., Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 13, pp. 2906-2916 (2014)
- Concepts and research for future detectors, F. Acernese et al., General Relativity and Gravitation (2014)
- Analytical description of interference between two misaligned and mismatched complete Gaussian beams, G. Wanner and G. Heinzel, Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 14, pp. 3043-3048 (2014)
- Design of a speed meter interferometer proof-of-principle experiment, C. Gräf et al., Class. Quantum Grav. 31 215009 (2014)
- Design study of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner, Ayaka Kumeta, Charlotte Bond, Kentaro Somiya (2014)
- Accelerated convergence method for fast Fourier transform simulation of coupled cavities, R. A. Day et al., Journal of the Optical Society of America A 31 652 (2014)
- Full modal simulation of opto-mechanical effects in optical systems, Gabriele Vajente, Classical and Quantum Gravity 31 075005 (2014)
- Comparing simulations of the Advanced LIGO Dual-Recycled Michelson C. Bond, P. Fulda, D. Brown and A. Freise, LIGO DCC: T1400270 (2014)
- Finesse input files for the L1 interferometer, C. Bond, P. Fulda, D. Brown, K. Kokeyama, L. Carbone and A. Freise, LIGO DCC: T1300901 (2014)
- Finesse input files for the H1 interferometer, C. Bond, P. Fulda, D. Brown, K. Kokeyama, L. Carbone, A.Perreca and A.Freise, LIGO DCC: T1300904 (2014)
- Simulations of effects of LLO mode-mismatches on PRFPMI error signals, C. Bond, P. Fulda, D. Brown and A. Freise, LIGO DCC: T1400182 (2014)
- Comparing Finesse simulations, analytical solutions and OSCAR simulations of Fabry-Perot alignment signals, S. Ballmer, J. Degallaix, A. Freise and P. Fulda, LIGO DCC: T1300345 and arXiv preprint arXiv:1401.5727, (2014)
- Optical Design and Numerical Modeling of the AEI 10m Prototype sub-SQL Interferometer, Christian Graef, PhD Thesis, University of Hannover (2013)
- Revisiting Sidebands of Sidebands in Finesse, J. Clarke, H. Wang, D. Brown and A. Freise, LIGO DCC: T1300986 (2013)
- Interferometer responses to gravitational waves: Comparing FINESSE simulations and analytical solutions, C, Bond, D. Brown, A. Freise (2013)
- Investigation of beam clipping in the Power Recycling Cavity of Advanced LIGO using FINESSE C. Bond, P. Fulda, D. Brown and A. Freise, LIGO DCC: T1300954 (2013)
- Finesse simulation for the alignment control signal of the aLIGO input mode cleaner, K. Kokeyama, K. Arai, P. Fulda, S. Doravari, L. Carbone, D. Brown. C. Bond and A. Freise, LIGO DCC: T1300074 (2013)
- Report from the Commissioning Workshop at LLO, K. Dooley et al., LIGO DCC: T1300497 (2013)
- Interferometer responses to gravitational waves: Comparing Finesse simulations and analytical solutions, C. Bond, D. Brown and A. Freise, LIGO DCC: T1300190 and arXiv preprint arXiv:1306.6752 (2013)
- Phase effects due to beam misalignment on diffraction gratings Deepali Lodhia, Daniel Brown, Frank Brueckner, Ludovico Carbone, Paul Fulda, Keiko Kokeyama, Andreas Freise (2013)
- A realistic polarizing Sagnac topology with DC readout for the Einstein Telescope Mengyao Wang, Charlotte Bond, Daniel Brown, Frank Brueckner, Ludovico Carbone, Rebecca Palmer, Andreas Freise, Phys. Rev. D 87, 096008 (2013)
- Generation of high-purity higher-order Laguerre-Gauss beams at high laser power L. Carbone, C. Bogan, P. Fulda, A. Freise, B. Willke, Phys. Rev. Lett., 110, 25 (2013)
- Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities Christian Graef et al, Optics Express, 21, 5287 (2013)
- Fast modal simulation of paraxial optical systems: the MIST open source toolbox G. Vajente, Class. Quantum Grav. 30 075014 (2013)
- Experimental test of higher-order Laguerre–Gauss modes in the 10 m Glasgow prototype interferometer B Sorazu, P J Fulda, B W Barr, A S Bell, C Bond, L Carbone, A Freise, S Hild, S H Huttner, J Macarthur and K A Strain, Class. Quantum Grav. 30 035004 (2013)
- Precision Interferometry in a New Shape: Higher-order Laguerre-Gauss Modes for Gravitational Wave Detection Paul Fulda, Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham (2012)
- Status of the GEO 600 squeezed-light laser Khalaidovski, Alexander; Vahlbruch, Henning; Lastzka, Nico; Graef, Christian; Lueck, Harald; Danzmann, Karsten; Grote, Hartmut; Schnabel, Roman, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 363, Issue 1, pp. 012013 (2012)
- Advanced Virgo Technical Design Report Accadia et al. (The Virgo Collaboration), Virgo technical note VIR–0128A–12 (2012)
- Phase effects in Gaussian beams on diffraction gratings D Lodhia, F Brueckner, L Carbone, P Fulda, K Kokeyama, A Freise, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol 363, number 1, pp 012014 (2012)
- The effect of mirror surface distortions on higher order Laguerre-Gauss modes C Bond, P Fulda, L Carbone, K Kokeyama, A Freise, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol 363, number 1, 012005 (2012)
- Review of the Laguerre-Gauss mode technology research program at Birmingham Fulda, P.; Bond, C.; Brown, D.; Brückner, F.; Carbone, L.; Chelkowski, S.; Hild, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Wang, M.; Freise, A., Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 363, Issue 1, pp. 012010 (2012)
- The output mode cleaner of GEO 600 Prijatelj, M.; Degallaix, J.; Grote, H.; Leong, J.; Affeldt, C.; Hild, S.; Lück, H.; Slutsky, J.; Wittel, H.; Strain, K.; Danzmann, K., Classical and Quantum Gravity, Volume 29, Issue 5, pp. 055009 (2012)
- Einstein gravitational wave Telescope conceptual design study M Abernathy et al (ET Science Team), ET technical note ET-0106C-10 (2011)
- Eigenmode changes in a misaligned triangular optical cavity F Kawazoe, R Schilling, H Lueck, Journal of Optics, Vol 13 055504 (2011)
- Diffractive gratings in high-precision interferometry for gravitational wave detection Jonathan Hallam, Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham (2011)
- Higher order Laguerre-Gauss mode degeneracy in realistic, high finesse cavities C Bond, P Fulda, L Carbone, K Kokeyama, A Freise, Physical Review D, Vol 84, number 10, id 102002 (2011)
- Optical properties of 3-port-grating coupled cavities Oliver Burmeister, Ph. D. thesis, university of Hannover (2010)
- Experimental demonstration of higher-order Laguerre-Gauss mode interferometry Fulda, Paul; Kokeyama, Keiko; Chelkowski, Simon; Freise, Andreas, Physical Review D, vol. 82, Issue 1, id. 012002 (2010)
- Experimental demonstration of displacement noise free interferometry Antonio Perreca, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Birmingham (2010)
- Gravitational-wave detector-derived error signals for the LIGO thermal compensation system R S Amin, J A Giaime, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 27, pp 215002 (2010)
- Automatic Alignment for the first science run of the Virgo interferometer F Acernese et al., Astroparticle Physics, Vol 33, number 3, pp 131 (2010)
- Interferometer Techniques for Gravitational-Wave Detection A.Freise and K.Strain, Living Reviews in Relativity, 13 (2010)
- Modeling Thermal Phenomena and Searching for New Thermally Induced Monitor Signals in Large Scale Gravitational Wave Detectors R Amin, Ph. D. thesis, University of Florida (2010)
- Broadband squeezing of quantum noise in a Michelson interferometer with Twin-Signal-Recycling A Thuering, C Graef, H Vahlbruch, M Mehmet, K Danzmann, R Schnabel, Optics letters, Vol 34, number 6, pp 824 (2009)
- Virgo Input Mirrors thermal effects characterization, R. Day, V. Fafone, J. Marque, M. Pichot, M. Punturo, A. Rocchi, Virgo technical note VIR-0191A-10 (2010)
- DC-readout of a signal-recycled gravitational wave detector S Hild, H Grote, J Degallaix, S Chelkowski, K Danzmann, A Freise, M Hewitson, J Hough, H Lueck, M Prijatelj, K A Strain, J R Smith, B Willke, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 26, 055012 (2009)
- Prospects of higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes in future gravitational wave detectors S Chelkowski, S Hild, A Freise, Physical Review D, Vol 79, issue 12, id 122002 (2009)
- Using the etalon effect for in situ balancing of the Advanced Virgo arm cavities Hild, S.; Freise, A.; Mantovani, M.; Chelkowski, S.; Degallaix, J.; Schilling, R., Classical and Quantum Gravity, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp. 025005 (2009)
- On Special Optical Modes and Thermal Issues in Advanced Gravitational Wave Interferometric Detectors Jean-Yves Vinet, Living Rev. Relativity 12, (2009)
- Coupling of lateral grating displacement to the output ports of a diffractive Fabry-Perot cavity J Hallam, S Chelkowski, A Freise, S Hild, B Barr, K A Strain, O Burmeister, R Schnabel, Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, Volume 11, Issue 8, pp. 085502 (2009)
- Quantum noise and radiation pressure effects in high power optical interferometers T R Corbitt, Ph. D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2008)
- Measurement and simulation of laser power noise in GEO 600 J R Smith, J Degallaix, A Freise, H Grote, M Hewitson, S Hild, H Lueck, K A Strain, B Willke, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 25, pp 035003 (2008)
- Development of a signal-extraction scheme for resonant sideband extraction K.Kokeyama, K.Somiya, F.Kawazoe, S.Sato, S.Kawamura, and A.Sugamoto, Classical Quantum Gravity, Vol 25, pp 235013 (2008)
- Experimental investigation of a control scheme for a zero-detuning resonant sideband extraction interferometer for next-generation gravitational-wave detectors F.Kawazoe, A.Sugamoto, V.Leonhardt, S.Sato, T.Yamazaki, M.Fukushima, S. Kawamura, O.Miyakawa, K.Somiya, T.Morioka, and A.Nishizawa, Classical Quantum Gravity, Vol 25, pp 195008 (2008)
- Demonstration of Displacement- and Frequency-Noise-Free Laser Interferometry Using Bidirectional Mach-Zehnder Interferometers S.Sato, K.Kokeyama, R.L.Ward, S.Kawamura, Y.Chen, A.Pai, and K.Somiya, Physics Review Letters, Vol 98, id 141101 (2007)
- Beyond the first Generation: Extending the Science Range of the Gravitational Wave Detector GEO 600. Stefan Hild, Ph. D. thesis, University of Hannover (2007)
- Squeezed Light and Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors Simon Chelkowski, Ph. D. thesis, University of Hannover (2007)
- The GEO 600 core optics W Winkler et al., Optics Communications, Vol 280, number 2, pp 492 (2007)
- Measurement of the optical parameters of the Virgo interferometer F Acernese et al., Applied Optics, Vol 46, pp 3466 (2007)
- Demonstration and comparison of tuned and detuned signal recycling in a large-scale gravitational wave detector S Hild, H Grote, M Hewitson, H Lueck, J R Smith, K A Strain, B Willke, K Danzmann, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 24, pp 1513 (2007)
- A novel concept for increasing the peak sensitivity of LIGO by detuning the arm cavities S Hild, A Freise, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 24, pp 5453 (2007)
- Optical modulation techniques for length sensing and control of optical cavities B W Barr, S H Huttner, J R Taylor, B Sorazu, M Plissi, K A Strain, Applied optics, Vol 46, number 31, pp 7739 (2007)
- The Virgo automatic alignment system F Acernese et al., Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 23, pp 91 (2006)
- Measurement of a low-absorption sample of OH-reduced fused silica S Hild, H Lueck, W Winkler, K A Strain, H Grote, J Smith, M and Malec, M Hewitson, B Willke, J Hough, K Danzmann, Applied optics, Vol 45, number 28, pp. 7269 (2006)
- Des tests du Modele Standard a la recherche d'ondes gravitationnelles E Tournefier, habilitation (2006)
- Lock Acquisition Scheme for the Advanced LIGO Optical Configuration O Miyakawa et al., Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 32 265–269 (206)
- Control sideband generation for dual-recycled laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors B W Barr, O Miyakawa, S Kawamura, A J Weinstein, R Ward, S Vass, K A Strain, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 23, pp 5661 (2006)
- Compensation of strong thermal lensing in advanced interferometric gravitational waves detectors J. Degallaix, Ph. D. Thesis University of Western Australia (2006)
- Formulation of instrument noise analysis techniques and their use in the commissioning of the gravitational wave observatory, GEO 600 JR Smith Ph. D. thesis, University of Hannover (2006)
- Diagonalizing sensing matrix of broadband RSE S.Sato, K.Kokeyama, F.Kawazoe, K.Somiya, and S.Kawamura, Journal of Physics Conference Series, Vol 32, pp 470 (2006)
- Downselect of the signal extraction scheme for LCGT K.Kokeyama, S.Sato, F.Kawazoe, K.Somiya, M.Fukushima, S.Kawamura, and A. Sugamoto, Journal of Physics Conference Series, Vol 32, pp 424 (2006)
- Commissioning of advanced, dual-recycled gravitational-wave detectors: simulations of complex optical systems guided by the phasor picture M Malec, Ph. D. thesis, University of Hannover (2006)
- Mathematical framework for simulation of quantum fields in complex interferometers using the two-photon formalism T Corbitt, Y Chen, N Mavalvala, Physical Review A, vol. 72, Issue 1, id. 013818 (2005)
- Development of a frequency-detuned interferometer as a prototype experiment for next-generation gravitational-wave detectors K.Somiya, P.Beyersdorf, K.Arai, S.Sato, S.Kawamura, O.Miyakawa, F. Kawazoe, S.Sakata, A.Sekido, and N.Mio, Applied Optics, Vol 44, pp 3179 (2005)
- Feedforward correction of mirror misalignment fluctuations for the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector J R Smith, H Grote, M Hewitson, S Hild, H Lueck, M Parsons, K A Strain, B Willke, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 22, pp 3093 (2005)
- The status of GEO 600 H Grote et al., Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 22, pp. 193 (2005)
- Towards dual recycling with the aid of time and frequency domain simulations M Malec, H Grote, A Freise, G Heinzel, K A Strain, J Hough, K Danzmann, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 21, pp 991 (2004)
- The status of GEO 600 Strain, K.A. et al. In: Proceeding of SPIE: Gravitational Wave and Particle Astrophysics Detectors (2004)
- Dual recycling for GEO 600 H Grote, A Freise, M Malec, G Heinzel, B Willke, H Lueck, K A Strain, J Hough, K Danzmann, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Volume 21, pp 473 (2004)
- Characterization of the LIGO 4 km Fabry--Perot cavities via their high-frequency dynamic responses to length and laser frequency variations M Rakhmanov, F Bondu, O Debieu, R L Savage Jr, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 21, pp 487 (2004)
- Thermal lensing compensation for AIGO high optical power test facility J Degallaix, C Zhao, L Ju, D Blair, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 21, pp 903 (2004)
- Thermal correction of the radii of curvature of mirrors for GEO 600 Lueck, H. Freise, A. Gossler, S. Hild, S. Kawabe, K. Danzmann, K., Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol 21, pp 985 (2004)
- The Next Generation of Interferometry: Multi-Frequency Optical Modelling, Control Concepts and Implementation Andreas Freise, Ph. D. thesis, University of Hannover (2003)
- Positions-und Orientierungsregelung von als Pendel aufgehaengten Resonatorspiegeln U Weiland, Diploma Thesis, University of Hannover (2000)

## Research grants that provided support for developing Finesse

Over the years Finesse development has been supported by several research grants, we are in particular grateful for support from the European Union and from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) via the grants listed below:

- Proposal for UK Involvement in the Operation of Advanced LIGO, STFC ST/N000072/1, Jan 2016 to Dec 2019
- Astrophysics at the University of Birmingham: Consolidated Grant, STFC ST/N000633/1, Apr 2016 to Mar 2019
- Gravitational Wave Initial Training Network (GraWIToN), FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN - Marie-Curie Action: "Initial Training Networks", February 2014 to January 2018
- Birmingham Astrophysics: Consolidated Grant, STFC ST/K000845/1, Apr 2013 to Sep 2016
- Einstein Telescope R&D, STFC ST/L001047/1, Apr 2013 to Mar 2016
- Exploring quantum Aspects of GravitationaL wavE detectors (EAGLE), FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IIF - Marie Curie Action: "International Incoming Fellowships", March 2014 to February 2016
- Bringing Advanced LIGO to Design Performance and Further Sensitivity Enhancements, STFC ST/J00166X/1, Jul 2011 - Jun 2013
- Birmingham Astrophysics-Rolling Grant, STFC ST/H002006/1, Apr 2010 - Mar 2013
- Einstein gravitational-wave Telescope (ET), INFRA-2007-2.1-01 - Design studies for research infrastructures in all fields, May 2008 April 2011
- Birmingham Astrophysics - Rolling Grant, STFC PP/E001203/1, Apr 2007 - Mar 2010